mythologyofthepoetandthemuse
mythologyofthepoetandthemuse:

//A link to the afterlife//Necromancy wasn’t that uncommon as a practice in ancient greece. Although many times we mention the classical antiquity while referring to the birth of rationalism and punctuality the truth is that back in the days prejudice was very much alive as well as mysticism…The need to contact your deceased ones and decipher the meaning of the afterlife will never cease to fascinate the human imagination and anxiety. Odysseus visits the underworld in the book 11 of the Odyssey (else called Nekyia) to consult the soul of the prophet Teiresias concerning his desired return to Ithaca. The underworld of the Odyssey is a place of phantasmagoria where the souls wander endlessly and without a rest. The soul must be fed with sacrificial blood so to remember its initial state, a ram is sacrificed for this purpose, this is a material link to the previous life of the dead, an earthly reminder. Just like Odysseus many were the actual people to visit similar oracles for the underworld experience and perhaps initiation. “Netherworld” by Robert Temple is a very much interesting quest on the matter.photo: Arcade of the Acheron oracle of the dead.

mythologyofthepoetandthemuse:

//A link to the afterlife//
Necromancy wasn’t that uncommon as a practice in ancient greece. Although many times we mention the classical antiquity while referring to the birth of rationalism and punctuality the truth is that back in the days prejudice was very much alive as well as mysticism…The need to contact your deceased ones and decipher the meaning of the afterlife will never cease to fascinate the human imagination and anxiety. Odysseus visits the underworld in the book 11 of the Odyssey (else called Nekyia) to consult the soul of the prophet Teiresias concerning his desired return to Ithaca. The underworld of the Odyssey is a place of phantasmagoria where the souls wander endlessly and without a rest. The soul must be fed with sacrificial blood so to remember its initial state, a ram is sacrificed for this purpose, this is a material link to the previous life of the dead, an earthly reminder. Just like Odysseus many were the actual people to visit similar oracles for the underworld experience and perhaps initiation. “Netherworld” by Robert Temple is a very much interesting quest on the matter.

photo: Arcade of the Acheron oracle of the dead.

medievalpoc

medievalpoc:

rebornasacynic:

babefield:

cusscakes:

medievalpoc:

heartsalchemy:

medievalpoc:

Peter Lely

Portrait of Elizabeth Murray

England (c. 1650)

Oil on canvas, 124 x 119 cm

[x] [x] [x] [x]

I think I have seen pictures of this before, in high school maybe, but I don’t remember there being a second person before. I seem to remember this image being cropped differently too, which is very disturbing because now that I see the entire painting, the way I remember it being cropped was very clearly and deliberately intended to remove the person holding the tray of flowers.

Since we’re throwing haymakers at the kyriarchy today, I think this is something that we should really be talking about too, because it happens

ALL. THE. TIME.

Level 1: People of Color from Medieval, Renaissance, and other Early Modern European works were often literally painted over in later decades or centuries.

For example: In this painting, Giulia de’Medici (the child) was painted over in the 19th century:

image

Level 2: It was very fashionable in a lot of 17th and 18th century paintings to have a Black servant featured in portraits of very important historical figures from European History.

Honestly? They’re practically ubiquitous. A lot of the very famous paintings you’ve seen of European and American historical figures have a Black servant in them that have been cropped out or painted over.

Those silly stock photos from your American History Professor’s Powerpoint?

Your Professor’s PowerPoint for “George Washington”:

image

image

The actual painting:

image

image

Your professor’s Powerpoint on Jean Chardin:

image

The actual painting:

image

PowerPoint on Maria Henriette Stuart (with some commentary about the Habsburg jaw):

image

Actual Painting:

image

But, because of whitewashed history curricula, teachers and professors continue to use the cropped images because they don’t want their lecture to get “derailed” by a discussion about race.

These images are also more commonly seen on stock photo sites, including ones for academic use.

I honestly can’t find anyone really writing about this, or even any analysis on how often the cropped photos are used.

The reason they are so easy to crop out is because of the the artistic conventions which reflect the power hierarchy:

Oil paintings of aristocratic families from this period make the point clearly. Artists routinely positioned black people on the edges or at the rear of their canvasses, from where they gaze wonderingly at their masters and mistresses. In order to reveal a ‘hierarchy of power relationships’, they were often placed next to dogs and other domestic animals, with whom they shared, according to the art critic and novelist David Dabydeen, ‘more or less the same status’. Their humanity effaced, they exist in these pictures as solitary mutes, aesthetic foils to their owners’ economic fortunes.

This is drastically oversimplified, but at least it addresses it directly.

If anyone knows more on any studies or statistical evidence on this tendency, feel free to add it.

I just learned things.

i think about this a lot

My art history teacher told us about this black crusader who was considered a hero in Europe. He showed us some portraits of him, but after time Europeans began to portray him as a white man in artwork. He also showed us medieval paintings of free black men. He said people think there are no medieval paintings of black people, but there are and they just aren’t shown to or seen by many people.

I’m glad to hear that your teacher has been trying to incorporate this kind of material into the curriculum. That’s why I try to include as many educational links and resources as I can along with the images-even professional educators can have a hard time finding these artworks and info about them.

It’s also worth mentioning that part of why I focus on Europe-which is a subject of some valid criticism, considering how little time is usually spent on non-Western cultures in history related classes-is because what MUST be included in U.S. world history education by high schools and colleges is according to strict guidelines that are Eurocentric and/or Western-centric.

Educators  are often working under pretty strict conditions about what they HAVE to teach you. It’s my hope that by providing a lot of specific examples from eras and artists, professors and high school teachers will be able to make their powerpoints and handouts more representative of the people in the classroom and still stay within the dictates of their department or institution.

Ideally, world history and art history will become less Western and Euro-centric, but in the meantime while our history education remains the way it is, these materials can help show that history is more diverse than a lot of textbooks would lead you to believe.

historical-nonfiction
historical-nonfiction:

During the crusages in the Middle Ages, European crusaders encountered a new kind of blade, with a distinctive grain pattern. This was damascus steel, made from the damascene process of thrusting a superheated blade in the body of a slave and then into cold water. India had discovered the technique, and exported the steel to the Middle East. Crusaders discovered, to their dismay, that swords made of Damascus steel were more resilient and harder than those of European manufacture. Europeans did not discover the secret until 500 years after the Crusades, however, when it was discovered that thrusting a red-hot sword into a mass of animal skins soaking in water had a similar effect to the Damascus method. The nitrogen given off by the skins in the water produces a chemical reaction in the steel

historical-nonfiction:

During the crusages in the Middle Ages, European crusaders encountered a new kind of blade, with a distinctive grain pattern. This was damascus steel, made from the damascene process of thrusting a superheated blade in the body of a slave and then into cold water. India had discovered the technique, and exported the steel to the Middle East. Crusaders discovered, to their dismay, that swords made of Damascus steel were more resilient and harder than those of European manufacture. Europeans did not discover the secret until 500 years after the Crusades, however, when it was discovered that thrusting a red-hot sword into a mass of animal skins soaking in water had a similar effect to the Damascus method. The nitrogen given off by the skins in the water produces a chemical reaction in the steel

tamorapierce
coolchicksfromhistory:

Justine Siegemund (1636-1705)
Art by Katya Granger (tumblr)
Although Justine never had children herself, she educated herself in obstetrics and began practicing as a midwife in 1659.  Justine began her career by offering her services for free to poor women.  Eventually she rose to prominence served as court midwife to the House of Hohenzollern (Brandenburg-Prussia).  Justine is said to have delivered almost 6,200 infants during the course of her career.
In 1690, Justine published The Court Midwife, the first medical text written by a woman in German.*  Formatted as a dialogue between Justine and a student named Christina, the book detailed solutions to problems such as shoulder presentation and a hemorrhaging placenta previa.  It also included embryological and anatomical engravings by Regnier de Graaf and Govard Bidloo.  The Court Midwife was published six more times in German between 1708 and 1756, although it was not published in English until 2007.
*Louise Bourgeois Boursier’s obstetrics textbook was translated into German, but written in French.

coolchicksfromhistory:

Justine Siegemund (1636-1705)

Art by Katya Granger (tumblr)

Although Justine never had children herself, she educated herself in obstetrics and began practicing as a midwife in 1659.  Justine began her career by offering her services for free to poor women.  Eventually she rose to prominence served as court midwife to the House of Hohenzollern (Brandenburg-Prussia).  Justine is said to have delivered almost 6,200 infants during the course of her career.

In 1690, Justine published The Court Midwife, the first medical text written by a woman in German.*  Formatted as a dialogue between Justine and a student named Christina, the book detailed solutions to problems such as shoulder presentation and a hemorrhaging placenta previa.  It also included embryological and anatomical engravings by Regnier de Graaf and Govard Bidloo.  The Court Midwife was published six more times in German between 1708 and 1756, although it was not published in English until 2007.

*Louise Bourgeois Boursier’s obstetrics textbook was translated into German, but written in French.

tamorapierce

tamorapierce:

doctorscienceknowsfandom:

anatsuno:

navalenigma:

shayvaalski:

friendlycloud:

agewa:

“We went to Kineshma, that’s in Ivanovo region, to visit his parents. I went as a heroine and I never expected someone to welcome me, a front-line girl, like that. We’ve gone through so much, we’ve saved lives, lifes of mothers, wives. And then… I heard accusations, I was bad-mouthed. Before that I’ve only ever been “dear sister”… We had tea and my husband’s mother took him aside and started crying: “Who did you marry? A front-line girl… You have two younger sisters. Who’s going to marry them now?” When I think back to that moment I feel tears welling up. Imagine: I had a record, I loved it a lot. There was a song, it said: you have the right to wear the best shoes. That was about a front-line girl. I had it playing, and [his?] elder sister came up and broke it apart, saying: you have no rights. They destroyed all my photos from the war… We, front-line girls, went through so much during hte war… and then we had another war. Another terrible war. The men left us, they didn’t cover our backs. Not like at the front.” from С.Алексеевич “У войны не женское лицо”

In Soviet Union women participating in WWII were erased from history, remaining as the occasional anecdote of a female sniper or simply as medical staff or, at best, radio specialists. The word “front-line girl” (frontovichka) became a terrible insult, synonimous to “whore”. Hundreds thousand of girls who went to war to protect their homeland with their very lives, who came back injured or disabled, with medals for valor, had to hide it to protect themselves from public scorn. 

This has always happened in history: Women do something important. Then they get shamed for it (so nobody will talk about it) and it gets erased from history.

And then certain men will say: “Women suck, they’ve never done anything important.”

Look into history and learn that women have played a far greater role then douches (present and past) wanted you to know.

Hey Will (and Jack) I got you something.

So this is important. Let me tell you a story.

All the time I spend debating about women in combat, I’ve picked up on a trend that disturbs me. Supporting or attacking, people are quick to draw on biology, psychology, law, but very rarely - almost never - do I hear about the history of women in combat, and the evidence their service lends to this debate.

Hundreds of thousands of women faced combat in WW2, and on both sides, and on all fronts, and it is a history that has been almost completely erased from contemporary awareness. I have been given arguments about how women can not psychologically handle combat. And about how women in mixed-gender combat units will automatically disrupt group cohesion - the brotherhood, if you will. Both of these assertions are erasure.

Women have not lived in a protective bubble untouched by combat for all of history. Women have been killed, wounded, and captured in combat, and tortured after. We are not living a world where these are hypothetical situations women have yet to prove they can handle. Unfortunately, they have, they can, in the future, they probably will, again and again. Soviet women served as partisans, snipers, tank drivers, fighter pilots, bombers. And more.

Both British and American women served in mixed-gender AA units. I could drag you through several examples of British women performing exemplarily despite being wounded, or seeing their comrades die. The Luftwaffe did not discriminate. Between the British and the Americans, it was determined that mixed gender units actually performed much better than all male units, because of teamwork. Because women are better and certain tasks, men are better at certain tasks, and at other tasks they are comparably efficient, and in a team, hopefully, in combat, you let the best do what they are best at. For the most part, they were proud to serve together. 

German propaganda never commented on the British AA units, but they thoroughly smeared the Soviet fighting woman - flitenweiber. People often argue with me that women are a threat to group cohesion because men naturally give women preferential treatment. Which certainly explains why men are more likely to survive shipwrecks. And history shows us that Germans soldiers had no chivalrous compunction when it came to shooting captured Soviet women who were armed.

We’re fed a history of war that almost exclusively features white male figures, most of whom fit into this destructive constructed myth of the soldier that is somehow both chivalrous and charmingly womanizing and who’s sense of brotherhood is unshakably dependent on the band being all man. There is no history of woman at war, none. I hear a lot about how women have no upper body strength, I hear nothing about the Front-Line Female Comrade.

THE WORD FRONTOVICHKA BECAME A TERRIBLE INSULT - are you fucking kidding me? Fuck, that made me cry. At first when I started reading I thought I was reading alernate history fiction. I’m ashamed to be ignorant about this, and full of rage and much worse bitter shame that this history is constantly repressed, suppressed, hidden. WHAT THE FUCK. D: D: D:

I didn’t know that bit about the AA (Anti-Aircraft) units.

And even in this article I don’t see a mention of the women of the Israeli Army, or women of the resistance if we’re just sticking to WWII.  I didn’t know about the Russian soldiers, only the fighter pilots, the night witches, and I’ve spent years poking into the corners of history trying to find women who will serve as ammunition when men tell me women can’t fight. 

The best explanation I’ve heard of what happened to women after WWII comes from “A League of Their Own,” the publicist’s character: “What is this—the war is over, Rosie, turn in your rivets?”  Women all over the world had to step into the same old ruts.

I don’t think it’s any mistake at all that Betty Friedan wrote her ground-breaking text for the second wave of feminism, THE FEMININE MYSTIQUE, just 10 years after WWII, after women had dined on a full plate of the same old, same old.

And shame on the men who never stood up for the women who worked and fought beside them, and saved their lives.

medievalpoc
medievalpoc:

jstheater:

medievalpoc:

So, I’ve been going through the New York Public Library's rather impressive collection of historical prints and engravings, and I happened to come across this piece, which appears to be unsourced, but titled “Hyanisbe”. My understanding of the French here is pretty loose, but appears to be an ode to Queen Hyanisbe's “ebony” beauty, which “surpasses that of roses and lilies”.
Queen Hyanisbe, according to Elizabeth B. Bearden in The Emblematics of the Self: Ekphrasis and Identity in Renaissance Imitations of Greek Romance, not only was meant to be a sort of analog to Elizabeth I, but was thought to have resembled her as well [p. 150]:

What’s interesting to be is that Bearden appears to be asserting that Hyanisbe was conceptualized by 16th and 17th century Europeans as a white woman, but this print dated 1659 would seem to be showing the opposite.
If anyone has more information about this print, Queen Hyanisbe, or a better translation of the inscription above, please feel free to add it!

The final two lines read in English:
"And my ebony and my ivory
surpass the roses and the lilies.”
(And “roses” often are a literary symbol of Britain, while “lilies” are often a symbol of France (fleur de lys).)
Fascinating!

^^ Good point, and super interesting!

medievalpoc:

jstheater:

medievalpoc:

So, I’ve been going through the New York Public Library's rather impressive collection of historical prints and engravings, and I happened to come across this piece, which appears to be unsourced, but titled “Hyanisbe”. My understanding of the French here is pretty loose, but appears to be an ode to Queen Hyanisbe's “ebony” beauty, which “surpasses that of roses and lilies”.

Queen Hyanisbe, according to Elizabeth B. Bearden in The Emblematics of the Self: Ekphrasis and Identity in Renaissance Imitations of Greek Romance, not only was meant to be a sort of analog to Elizabeth I, but was thought to have resembled her as well [p. 150]:

image

What’s interesting to be is that Bearden appears to be asserting that Hyanisbe was conceptualized by 16th and 17th century Europeans as a white woman, but this print dated 1659 would seem to be showing the opposite.

If anyone has more information about this print, Queen Hyanisbe, or a better translation of the inscription above, please feel free to add it!

The final two lines read in English:

"And my ebony and my ivory

surpass the roses and the lilies.”

(And “roses” often are a literary symbol of Britain, while “lilies” are often a symbol of France (fleur de lys).)

Fascinating!

^^ Good point, and super interesting!